Ha Noi is located in the Red River Delta, in the center of North Viet Nam. It is encompassed by Thai Nguyen and Vinh Phuc provines to the north, Ha Nam and Hoa Binh provinces to the south, Bac Giang, Bac Ninh and Hung Yen provinces to the east, Hoa Binh and Phu Tho provinces to the west.
Ha Noi means “the hinterland between the rivers” (Ha: river, Noi: interior). Ha Noi’s territory is washed by the Red River (the portion of the Red River embracing Ha Noi is approximately 40km long) and its tributaries, but there are some other rivers flowing through the capital, including Duong, Cau, Ca Lo, Day, Nhue, Tich, To Lich and Kim Nguu.
The city lies on the right bank of the Red River. Hanoi is 1,760 km (1,090 mi) north of Ho Chi Minh City and 120 km (75 mi) west of Hai Phong city.
In the core of the Mekong Delta, Ho Chi Minh City, formerly known as Saigon, is second the most important in Vietnam after Hanoi. It is not only a commercial center but also a scientific, technological, industrial and tourist center. The city is bathed by many rivers, arroyos and canals, the biggest river being the Saigon River. The Port of Saigon, established in 1862, is accessible to ships weighing up to 30,000 tons, a rare advantage for an inland river port.